Nut (tree tomato) is a small tree with roots that are not long, and the height can reach 6 meters. It does not live for a long time, so it can usually reach between 15 and 20 years. Its leaves are heart-shaped and can reach a length of 30 cm and a width of 12 cm.
Its flowers are pink, blue or white and allow the branches to start. The white fruits on the walnut tree are red, yellow, orange or even purple. They have a long and thin head that can be up to 10 cm long and 5 cm wide and shaped like an egg on the head.
Their skin is very small, thick and strong.
Nuts thrive in well-drained, well-drained, well-drained soil. It does not tolerate wet or dry areas.
It does not grow very tall but can have branches that spread over large areas and often climb over the head.
There are different types of nuts depending on the color of the shell. So there are varieties with red, yellow, orange and golden skin and so on. The types of nuts can also vary depending on the size of the nut as well as the way the nut is made.
Nut seeds are between 2 cm and 10 cm long. These seeds begin to ripen after two years. A single walnut tree can produce 22 to 66 pounds of fruit per year depending on how it is cared for.
Nuts Roots Nuts have short taproots and enjoy watering and watering during low rainfall.
stem The stem of the nut grows up to 6 meters in length. This makes it resistant to high winds and therefore prone to breakage.
Types of nuts
When you plant a nut seed, the seeds that grow up are not the same as the mother. There are many species that are not much distinguished by the color of the ripe fruit and the size of the tree. As in our country there are often three species that cannot be distinguished by the size and color of the fruit. There are white varieties with large nuts and white with small nuts that are often yellow or red.
In Florida there are two varieties, the Inca Gold and the Ecuadorian orange. In Brazil
, research has been able to create a cross-breeding species.
Where the white nut
This tree prefers an altitude between 300 meters and 3000 meters. There are places where it is found at very low altitudes, but then it produces small fruits.
The nut also likes a place where the soil is firm but has good water and air circulation. Its roots do not tolerate waterlogging in the soil because it lacks air and the tree quickly dries up. It is also important that when you plant this tree, you try to protect it from the wind because it will quickly fall to the ground.
Its branches also when it starts bearing fruit protect it from the wind. This tree starts bearing fruit within 12 months after you plant it in the ground. However, it is important to remove the first seeds of the clay so that its primary roots take a good hold in the soil. When grown for the market the tree stays in the ground for a short time, that is between 4 and 6 years.
However, if you take good care of it and give it the right fertilizer and water, it can last between 12 and 15 years and still produce. A cluster of 20 flowers can produce 4 to 5 ripe fruits. Unfermented flowers will not produce fruit. After flowering it takes up to 25 weeks to fully mature.
Importance of nuts in human diet
Nuts contain varying amounts of vitamin C depending on their type, but they are among the most well-known nuts. Nuts and seeds can help fight diseases such as cancers and some heart diseases. These nutrients are anthocyanins, beta-carotene, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeanthin. Nuts are also a source of energy. Nuts are also rich in vitamins A, B6, and E as well as minerals such as Ferna Potassium. Nuts are poor in energy and fiber.
Precautions before planting seeds
Before planting seeds, it is important to consider the following:
• Where the seeds will come from
• Where the seeds
will be planted • The way you will go to get the seedlings (fields or fields)
• How you will prepare the field
• Time to plant the seeds It is also important to think about how you will cut your plant and how you will take care of it after it has taken time in the field.
Where it is grown and how it is grown
Time to plant peanuts: peanuts are planted during the rainy season, especially during
the harvest season, that is, in the month of September and October.
Soil: The soil in which nuts are planted should be at a temperature of 24-29°C.
Nuts prefer areas with well-distributed rainfall throughout the year, at a rate of 1200-3000 mm per year. When there is no rain, especially during the summer, it is important to water them. Overwatering can cause fungal diseases. When there is no rain, the nut can tolerate the sun, but then there is no yield, the yield is low and the seeds are very small.
Nuts are usually wind resistant. That’s why the place where the nuts are planted should be protected by windbreaks.
The height of the mountains
From where the nuts came from the high mountains where it rains a lot in Brazil and Ecuador. This allows many of the countries that grow nuts to be located near the tropics where there are high mountains and high rainfall. In these countries, nuts grow best at altitudes between 300 and 3000 meters above sea level.
Prepare the soil
It is not recommended to use seeds or seedlings of walnuts from any source regardless of whether the trees from which they came are disease-free. Nuts must come from a tree that does not show any signs of disease. It is forbidden to plant these seedlings because when you plant these seedlings they often spread the disease.
Prepare the soil that will produce seeds
Choosing where to source your peanuts before planting is an
important step because the way your peanuts are selected will determine whether you will get a good harvest or a sick field. In choosing where the walnut tree will come from, it is important to pay attention to the following:
• Choose a walnut tree that does not show any disease and is well grown with many and large fruits.
Harvest well-ripened nuts that have no defects (be it red, orange or yellow)
• Before cutting them, first soak them in water containing Jik (1 part of Jik in 3 parts of water) or water containing millet salt. This kills the diseases that are on the outer skin or on the leaves without reaching the inner fruit. Three pounds of walnuts are mixed in 20 liters of water. Cut the walnuts in
half and scoop out the seeds and juice using
a spoon. Then put it in a covered bottle and add water and cover it,
then shake the seeds (straw) mixed with a curtain, shake it for 5
to 14 days and wash it at least twice a day (morning and evening) to mix it.
• Ripe seeds are soaked in water containing javelins (5%) to kill septuria and other pests. When arranging, you should pay attention to the location of the curtain.
• Once the seeds have been sown, put them in a basin or in a clean cloth and put them in the shade so that they absorb water
. At the end of that, the problem is solved.
• The seeds found can be discarded immediately.
If you don’t plant them immediately, store them in a dry place in a paper envelope, but not more than 3 months before you plant them, because when they are older, they will not germinate because the germination capacity of the seeds decreases.
Making a wish
One of the most common ways to obtain peanut seeds is to harvest the seeds from the ground. This method is the most commonly used but not the only method used to obtain seed pods. Nut seeds can also be obtained from seeds or grown in the laboratory.
• Proper care of the grass
and leaves the designated area for planting. A 50 cm space is left between the leaves.
• Fertilize the soil well; when the sour soil is added to the soil
• Cut the lines so that they are separated by 5 cm between the lines, that is, 20 lines in the width of each book
• Next is to sow the groundnuts at a depth of 10 mm to avoid clumping.
• Cover with soil in the turgons where the groundnut seeds have been sown and tamp the soil slowly. In covering, they use a few straws and water them once a day for two or three
Transplanting seedlings into pots (in the nursery)
Nurseries are built close to water for easy watering. It should also be close to highways for easy transport of seedlings but isolated from the peanut fields to prevent disease.
Once you have decided on the nursery, the following tasks will follow:
• Participation in the nursery will be organized and balanced.
• Measure and cut the leaves by leaving 50-80 cm of space between the leaves and the leaf should be 1.20 m wide, the length depends on the number of seeds desired. •
The leaves are saved from the edges of the trees to start the cuttings containing the seedlings .
• Arrange the seedlings in the leaves between the branches around the
leaves. That is, when we are 5 cm short after we have 2 or 3 leaves
. It is
important to remember to pour the soil in the pots whenever it seems
• Seedlings that are 15-25 cm long, that is, 2 months after harvesting, can be transferred to a well-prepared field.
Planting The new peanut field is placed as far away from the old field as possible with a wooden fence (haie vive) separating the two fields. Nitrogen fertilizers can be used here to prevent pests and diseases from spreading from one field to another. This has a positive effect on the environment and increases soil fertility. The weather due to the steep slopes helps to fight erosion and maintain the soil.
Transplant and plant only seedlings that are free from any disease, and have green leaves. One should use seedlings from reputable nurseries or other places known for producing quality seedlings. It is important to avoid planting seedlings that show defects (discolored or discolored leaves), thin, attached or yellow roots. Before transplanting the pea seedlings into the
field, the farmer should check if they have seen the sun and it will continue (hardening off).
It is important to follow the following steps to have good marakuja seedlings:
• Watering the seedlings the evening before the day they will be planted
• Planting the seedlings early in the morning or in the evening (which is also better) to
The humidity of the night will help to recover. Seedlings should never be planted in
• Digging a hole wider and deeper than the hole containing the seed
• To remove the seed, place the seed in the hole so that its part is attached to the
soil in the seed and is level with the soil of the field. Put the soil back in the hole
and press it slowly until it reaches the roots so that the root does not fall, then prepare the soil on the edge of the hole so that it is equal to the place where the
soil in the hole was limited.
• Firming the soil on the side and watering
planted to retain moisture and to control weeds. This also prevents
raindrops from spreading diseases in the soil.
• During the summer, it is important to receive the seeds after planting, then the coverings are gradually removed.
It is important to plant groundnut seedlings when the rains begin so that they can take root well. This is done in September and October. Nuts are planted in rows separated by a distance between 1 m and 1.5 m between trees and 4.5-5.0 m between rows. This spacing keeps the nuts from crowding the field and
reduces the spread of disease and makes cutting and spraying easier.
This distance is enough so that when the nuts are ripe they breathe and harden because the ones that want to fall are caught by others.
At a distance of 1.5 meters between trees and 4.5 meters between rows, at least 1450 seedlings are planted per hectare.
Grown seedlings are cut before planting in the field. They will cut at least 50 cm from the tree and the shoots, the shoots will come out of the ground (because usually the shoots reach about two meters). However, seedlings from multi-stemmed varieties should be thinned so that the shoots do not start far enough from the ground.
When it is planted, it produces seedlings that look like the mother and the planting distance is at least 60 to 90 cm long. The seedlings can be cut so that the tree will have more branches and will not break. Seedlings from seedlings are very tall, but those from seeds are short and branchy (this also depends on the tree from which the cuttings came).
Where there is strong wind, the distance between trees is reduced. It is important to remove the flowers that are removed in the first year so that the roots can better hold in the soil.
It is important to remember that the tree is pruned enough every year to produce more branches that will bear fruit, and cut them to a height of one meter to 1.20m. They often add compost immediately. In the fifth year they add 4 to 6 tons of fertilizer mixed with phosphate and sodium nitrate and potassium sulfate. It is important to cut it every year by removing the newly whitened branches. Proper pruning increases the harvest time and simplifies the harvesting process. It is important
Diseases and pests
Nuts face a variety of problems that can be reduced depending on how they are handled.
Flies can bite the seed, the shell protects the seed because it is hard, but the seed is not clearly visible, so it is not sold well in the market because of its ugly appearance.
The most common problem in peanuts is the powdery mildew disease caused by the fungus Oidium sp. There are also plant worms (nematodes caused by Meloidogyne sp), root rot (root rot) or crown rot caused by phyotophthora sp) and wilt caused by pseudomonas solanacearum. Proper management of the crop field reduces these diseases.
Nut seeds can be between 2 and 8 cm long. The seed is harvested with its seed or part of the seed remaining. Because the seed mist is strong, harvesters can immediately put it in a bag or carton and harvest it without any problems. The seeds mature in between 6 and 8 weeks but this depends on the altitude of the mountains where the nuts are grown.
Usually, up to 6 tons can be harvested per acre. One tree can produce 60 pounds or more per year.
Quality of production: Nuts harvested from nuts can be stored for up to 9 weeks when stored at 4 to 10 degrees Celsius and 90 to 95% relative humidity. If they are stored in the refrigerator, they will spoil less. But if they are placed in the cold above 20 degrees they start to rot. Once the nuts are ripe they can be processed or stored in the refrigerator.
Nuts start to be harvested in the second year depending on the season, starting with a low yield of up to 4 tons per hectare. This production is increasing so that in the fourth year it can reach 16 tons per hectare. Then this production decreases in the following years so that in general the nut stays in the field for eight years.
The cost of growing peanuts
Usually a nut tree can produce 22 kilos. In the market, one nut can be bought for 500 reais in Kigali. This gives an income of 11000 per tree per year. Planting a tree, pruning, watering and cutting it can cost as much as 5000 rupees per year and harvesting and bringing the produce to the market costs 1500 rupees per year. So that a year considering the cultivation of nuts, harvesting and delivering it to the market can cost 6500 reais. The resulting profit would be up to 5500 reais per tree per year.
Nutrient care in the field
When the nut is 1-1.5 meters long, it is better if you immediately cut the root on one side and lean it on the other side (here you give an angle of 30 to 45 degrees). This causes branches to grow from the stem instead of from the head and will produce fruit.